taxy

Description
Programmable taxonomical grouping for arbitrary objects
Latest
taxy-0.9pre0.20211005.14506.tar, 2021-Oct-09, 200 KiB
Maintainer
Adam Porter <adam@alphapapa.net>
Home page
https://github.com/alphapapa/taxy.el
Browse ELPA's repository
CGit or Gitweb
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To install this package, run in Emacs:

M-x package-install RET taxy RET

Full description

Now, where did I put that…

This library provides a programmable way to classify arbitrary objects into a hierarchical taxonomy. (That's a lot of fancy words to say that this lets you automatically put things in nested groups.)

Helpful features include:

Dynamic taxonomies
Objects may be classified into hierarchies automatically defined at runtime based on their attributes.
Reusable taxonomies
Taxonomy definitions may be stored in variables and reused in other taxonomies' descendant groups.
Classification domain-specific language
Easily define a custom DSL used to classify items dynamically (which can be extended by users).
Flexible table view
Based on magit-section, with easily defined columns (also extendable by users).

1 Examples

May these examples help you classify your understanding.

1.1 Numbery (starting basically)

Let's imagine a silly taxonomy of numbers below 100:

("Numbery" "A silly taxonomy of numbers."
 (("< 10" "Numbers below 10"
   ;; These numbers are leftovers from the sub-taxys below.
   (0 2 4 6 8)
   ;; These sub-taxys further classify the numbers below 10 into odd
   ;; and even.  The odd taxy "consumes" numbers, while the even one
   ;; doesn't, leaving them to reappear in the parent taxy's items.
   (("Odd" "(consuming)"
     (1 3 5 7 9))
    ("Even" "(non-consuming)"
     (0 2 4 6 8))))
  (">= 10" "Numbers above 9"
   ;; Like in the "< 10" taxy, these numbers are leftovers from this
   ;; taxy's sub-taxys, three of which are non-consuming.
   (10 11 13 14 17 19 22 23 25 26 29 31 34 35 37 38 41 43 46 47 49 50 53 55 58
       59 61 62 65 67 70 71 73 74 77 79 82 83 85 86 89 91 94 95 97 98)
   (("Divisible by 3" "(non-consuming)"
     (12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63 66 69 72 75 78 81 84
	 87 90 93 96 99))
    ("Divisible by 4" "(non-consuming)"
     (12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96))
    ("Divisible by 3 or 4" "(consuming)"
     ;; This taxy consumes numbers it takes in, but since these
     ;; numbers have already been taken in (without being consumed) by
     ;; the previous two sibling taxys, they may also appear in them.
     (12 15 16 18 20 21 24 27 28 30 32 33 36 39 40 42 44 45 48 51 52 54 56 57 60
	 63 64 66 68 69 72 75 76 78 80 81 84 87 88 90 92 93 96 99))
    ("Divisible by 5" "(non-consuming)"
     (10 25 35 50 55 65 70 85 95))))))

You might think about how to produce that by writing some imperative code, but taxy allows you to do so in a more declarative and functional manner:

(require 'taxy)

(defvar numbery
  (make-taxy
   :name "Numbery"
   :description "A silly taxonomy of numbers."
   :taxys (list (make-taxy
		 :name "< 10"
		 :description "Numbers below 10 (consuming)"
		 :predicate (lambda (n) (< n 10))
		 :taxys (list
			 ;; These sub-taxys further classify the numbers below 10 into odd
			 ;; and even.  The odd taxy "consumes" numbers, while the even one
			 ;; doesn't, leaving them to reappear in the parent taxy's items.
			 (make-taxy :name "Odd"
				    :description "(consuming)"
				    :predicate #'oddp)
			 (make-taxy :name "Even"
				    :description "(non-consuming)"
				    :predicate #'evenp
				    :then #'identity)))
		(make-taxy
		 :name ">= 10"
		 :description "Numbers above 9 (consuming)"
		 :predicate (lambda (n) (>= n 10))
		 :taxys (list
			 ;; Like in the "< 10" taxy, these sub-taxys further classify
			 ;; the numbers, but only one of them consumes numbers it
			 ;; takes in, leaving the rest to reappear in the parent taxy.
			 (make-taxy :name "Divisible by 3"
				    :description "(non-consuming)"
				    :predicate (lambda (n) (zerop (mod n 3)))
				    :then #'identity)
			 (make-taxy :name "Divisible by 4"
				    :description "(non-consuming)"
				    :predicate (lambda (n) (zerop (mod n 4)))
				    :then #'identity)
			 (make-taxy :name "Divisible by 3 or 4"
				    :description "(consuming)"
				    ;; Since this taxy's `:then' function is unset,
				    ;; it defaults to `ignore', which causes it to
				    ;; consume numbers it takes in.  Since these
				    ;; numbers have already been taken in (without
				    ;; being consumed) by the previous two sibling
				    ;; taxys, they also appear in them.
				    :predicate (lambda (n) (or (zerop (mod n 3))
							       (zerop (mod n 4)))))
			 (make-taxy :name "Divisible by 5"
				    :description "(non-consuming)"
				    :predicate (lambda (n) (zerop (mod n 5)))
				    :then #'identity))))))

(let ((numbers (cl-loop for i below 100 collect i))
      ;; Since `numbery' is stored in a variable, we use an emptied
      ;; copy of it to avoid mutating the original taxy.
      (taxy (taxy-emptied numbery)))
  (taxy-plain (taxy-fill (reverse numbers) taxy)))

The taxy-fill function applies the numbers in a "cascade" down the hierarchy of "taxys", and the taxy-plain function returns a meaningful subset of the taxys' slots, suitable for display.

1.2 Lettery (filling incrementally)

You can also add more items after the hierarchy has been filled. In this example we'll make a comprehensive taxonomy of letters. The first sub-taxy collects vowels, and the second, by leaving its predicate at the default value, identity, collects all letters not collected by the first taxy, i.e. non-vowels.

(defvar lettery
  (make-taxy
   :name "Lettery"
   :description "A comprehensive taxonomy of letters."
   :taxys (list (make-taxy
		 :name "Vowels"
		 :description "You know what those are."
		 :predicate (lambda (l)
			      (member-ignore-case l '("a" "e" "i" "o" "u"))))
		(make-taxy
		 :name "Consonants"
		 :description "Well, if they aren't vowels..."))))

(taxy-plain
 (taxy-fill (reverse
	     (cl-loop for l from ?a to ?n
		      collect (upcase (char-to-string l))))
	    lettery))

That produces:

("Lettery" "A comprehensive taxonomy of letters."
 (("Vowels" "You know what those are."
   ("A" "E" "I"))
  ("Consonants" "Well, if they aren't vowels..."
   ("B" "C" "D" "F" "G" "H" "J" "K" "L" "M" "N"))))

Oops, we forgot the letters after N! Let's add them, too:

(taxy-plain
 (taxy-fill (reverse
	     (cl-loop for l from ?n to ?z
		      collect (upcase (char-to-string l))))
	    lettery))

Which gives us:

("Lettery" "A comprehensive taxonomy of letters."
 (("Vowels" "You know what those are."
   ("O" "U" "A" "E" "I"))
  ("Consonants" "Well, if they aren't vowels..."
   ("N" "P" "Q" "R" "S" "T" "V" "W" "X" "Y" "Z" "B" "C" "D" "F" "G" "H" "J" "K" "L" "M" "N"))))

Oh, they're out of order, now. That won't do. Let's fix that:

(taxy-plain
 (taxy-sort #'string< #'identity lettery))

That's better:

("Lettery" "A comprehensive taxonomy of letters."
 (("Vowels" "You know what those are."
   ("A" "E" "I" "O" "U"))
  ("Consonants" "Well, if they aren't vowels..."
   ("B" "C" "D" "F" "G" "H" "J" "K" "L" "M" "N" "N" "P" "Q" "R" "S" "T" "V" "W" "X" "Y" "Z"))))

1.3 Sporty (understanding completely)

Let's try to understand a few things about sports. First we'll define a struct to make them easier to grasp:

(cl-defstruct sport
  name uses venue fun)

Now we'll make a list of sports:

(defvar sports
  (list (make-sport :name "Baseball"
		    :uses '(bat ball glove)
		    :venue 'outdoor
		    :fun t)
	(make-sport :name "Football"
		    :uses '(ball)
		    :venue 'outdoor
		    :fun t)
	(make-sport :name "Basketball"
		    :uses '(ball hoop)
		    :venue 'indoor
		    :fun t)
	(make-sport :name "Tennis"
		    :uses '(ball racket)
		    :venue 'outdoor
		    :fun t)
	(make-sport :name "Racquetball"
		    :uses '(ball racket)
		    :venue 'indoor
		    :fun t)
	(make-sport :name "Handball"
		    :uses '(ball glove)
		    :venue 'indoor
		    :fun t)
	(make-sport :name "Soccer"
		    :uses '(ball)
		    :venue 'outdoor
		    :fun nil)
	(make-sport :name "Disc golf"
		    :uses '(disc basket)
		    :venue 'outdoor
		    :fun t)
	(make-sport :name "Ultimate"
		    :uses '(disc)
		    :venue 'outdoor
		    :fun t)
	(make-sport :name "Volleyball"
		    :uses '(ball)
		    :venue 'indoor
		    :fun t)))

And finally we'll define a taxy to organize them. In this, we use a helper macro to make the member function easier to use in the list of key functions:

(defvar sporty
  (cl-macrolet ((in (needle haystack)
		    `(lambda (item)
		       (when (member ,needle (funcall ,haystack item))
			 ,needle))))
    (make-taxy
     :name "Sporty"
     :take (lambda (item taxy)
	     (taxy-take-keyed
	       (list #'sport-venue
		     (in 'ball 'sport-uses)
		     (in 'disc 'sport-uses)
		     (in 'glove 'sport-uses)
		     (in 'racket 'sport-uses))
	       item taxy
	       ;; We set the `:then' function of the taxys
	       ;; created by `taxy-take-keyed' to `identity'
	       ;; so they will not consume their items.
	       :then #'identity)))))

Now let's fill the taxy with the sports and format it:

(thread-last sporty
  taxy-emptied
  (taxy-fill sports)
  (taxy-mapcar #'sport-name)
  taxy-plain)
((("Sporty"
   ((indoor
     ((ball
       ("Volleyball" "Basketball")
       ((glove
	 ("Handball"))
	(racket
	 ("Racquetball"))))))
    (outdoor
     ((disc
       ("Ultimate" "Disc golf"))
      (ball
       ("Soccer" "Football")
       ((racket
	 ("Tennis"))
	(glove
	 ("Baseball"))))))))))

That's pretty sporty. But classifying them by venue first makes the racket and glove sports not be listed together. Let's swap the key functions around so the venue is classified at the deepest level of the hierarchy:

(defvar sporty
  (cl-macrolet ((in (needle haystack)
		    `(lambda (item)
		       (when (member ,needle (funcall ,haystack item))
			 ,needle))))
    (make-taxy
     :name "Sporty"
     :take (lambda (item taxy)
	     (taxy-take-keyed
	       (list (in 'ball 'sport-uses)
		     (in 'disc 'sport-uses)
		     (in 'glove 'sport-uses)
		     (in 'racket 'sport-uses)
		     #'sport-venue)
	       item taxy
	       :then #'identity)))))

(thread-last sporty
  taxy-emptied
  (taxy-fill sports)
  (taxy-mapcar #'sport-name)
  taxy-plain)
((("Sporty"
   ((disc
     ((outdoor
       ("Ultimate" "Disc golf"))))
    (ball
     ((racket
       ((indoor
	 ("Racquetball"))
	(outdoor
	 ("Tennis"))))
      (indoor
       ("Volleyball" "Basketball"))
      (outdoor
       ("Soccer" "Football"))
      (glove
       ((indoor
	 ("Handball"))
	(outdoor
	 ("Baseball"))))))))))

That's better. But I'd also like to see a very simple classification to help me decide what to play:

(thread-last
    (make-taxy
     :name "Funny"
     :take (lambda (item taxy)
	     (taxy-take-keyed
	       (list (lambda (sport)
		       (if (sport-fun sport)
			   'fun 'boring))
		     #'sport-venue)
	       item taxy)))
  taxy-emptied
  (taxy-fill sports)
  (taxy-mapcar #'sport-name)
  taxy-plain)
((("Funny"
   ((boring
     ((outdoor
       ("Soccer"))))
    (fun
     ((indoor
       ("Volleyball" "Handball" "Racquetball" "Basketball"))
      (outdoor
       ("Ultimate" "Disc golf" "Tennis" "Football" "Baseball"))))))))

Ah, now I understand.

1.4 Applications

Some example applications may be found in the examples directory:

  • Deffy shows top-level definitions and forms in an Elisp project or file:
  • Diredy rearranges a Dired buffer into groups by file size and type:
  • Musicy shows a music library with tracks categorized by genre, artist, year, album, etc:

2 Installation

taxy is distributed in GNU ELPA, which is available in Emacs by default. Use M-x package-install RET taxy RET, then (require 'taxy) in your Elisp project.

3 Usage

A taxy is defined with the make-taxy constructor, like:

(make-taxy :name "Numbery"
	   :description "A silly taxonomy of numbers."
	   :predicate #'numberp
	   :then #'ignore
	   :taxys (list ...))

The :predicate function determines whether an object fits into that taxy. If it does, taxy-fill adds the object to that taxy's descendant :taxys, if present, or to its own :items. The function defaults to identity, so a taxy "takes in" any object by default (i.e. if you only apply objects you want to classify, there's no need to test them at the top-level taxy).

The :then function determines what happens to an object after being taken in to the taxy's :items: if the function, called with the object, returns a non-nil value, that value is applied to other taxys at the same level until one of their :then functions returns nil or no more taxys remain. The function defaults to ignore, which makes a taxy "consume" its items by default. Setting the function to, e.g. identity, makes it not consume them, leaving them eligible to also be taken into subsequent taxys, or to appear in the parent taxy's items.

After defining a taxy, call taxy-fill with it and a list of objects to fill the taxy's hierarchy. Note: taxy-fill modifies the taxy given to it (filling its :items and those of its :taxys), so when using a statically defined taxy (e.g. one defined with defvar), you should pass taxy-fill a taxy copied with taxy-emptied, which recursively copies a taxy without :items.

To return a taxy in a more human-readable format (with only relevant fields included), use taxy-plain. You may also use taxy-mapcar to replace items in a taxy with, e.g. a more useful representation.

3.1 Reusable taxys

Since taxys are structs, they may be stored in variables and used in other structs (being sure to copy the root taxy with taxy-emptied before filling). For example, this shows using taxy to classify Matrix rooms in Ement.el:

(defun ement-roomy-buffer (room)
  (alist-get 'buffer (ement-room-local room)))

(defvar ement-roomy-unread
  (make-taxy :name "Unread"
	     :predicate (lambda (room)
			  (buffer-modified-p (ement-roomy-buffer room)))))

(defvar ement-roomy-opened
  (make-taxy :name "Opened"
	     :description "Rooms with buffers"
	     :predicate #'ement-roomy-buffer
	     :taxys (list ement-roomy-unread
			  (make-taxy))))

(defvar ement-roomy-closed
  (make-taxy :name "Closed"
	     :description "Rooms without buffers"
	     :predicate (lambda (room)
			  (not (ement-roomy-buffer room)))))

(defvar ement-roomy
  (make-taxy
   :name "Ement Rooms"
   :taxys (list (make-taxy
		 :name "Direct"
		 :description "Direct messaging rooms"
		 :predicate (lambda (room)
			      (ement-room--direct-p room ement-session))
		 :taxys (list ement-roomy-opened
			      ement-roomy-closed))
		(make-taxy
		 :name "Non-direct"
		 :description "Group chat rooms"
		 :taxys (list ement-roomy-opened
			      ement-roomy-closed)))))

Note how the taxys defined in the first three variables are used in subsequent taxys. As well, the ement-roomy-opened taxy has an "anonymous" taxy, which collects any rooms that aren't collected by its sibling taxy (otherwise those objects would be collected into the parent, "Opened" taxy, which may not always be the most useful way to present the objects).

Using those defined taxys, we then fill the ement-roomy taxy with all of the rooms in the user's session, and then use taxy-mapcar to replace the room structs with useful representations for display:

(taxy-plain
 (taxy-mapcar (lambda (room)
		(list (ement-room--room-display-name room)
		      (ement-room-id room)))
   (taxy-fill (ement-session-rooms ement-session)
	      (taxy-emptied ement-roomy))))

This produces:

("Ement Rooms"
 (("Direct" "Direct messaging rooms"
   (("Opened" "Rooms with buffers"
     (("Unread"
       (("Lars Ingebrigtsen" "!nope:gnus.org")))))
    ("Closed" "Rooms without buffers"
     (("John Wiegley" "!not-really:newartisans.com")
      ("Eli Zaretskii" "!im-afraid-not:gnu.org")))))
  ("Non-direct" "Group chat rooms"
   (("Opened" "Rooms with buffers"
     (("Unread"
       (("Emacs" "!WfZsmtnxbxTdoYPkaT:greyface.org")
	("#emacs" "!KuaCUVGoCiunYyKEpm:libera.chat")))
      ;; The non-unread buffers in the "anonymous" taxy.
      ((("magit/magit" "!HZYimOcmEAsAxOcgpE:gitter.im")
	("Ement.el" "!NicAJNwJawmHrEhqZs:matrix.org")
	("#emacsconf" "!UjTTDnYmSAslLTtMCF:libera.chat")
	("Emacs Matrix Client" "!ZrZoyXEyFrzcBZKNis:matrix.org")
	("org-mode" "!rUhEinythPhVTdddsb:matrix.org")
	("This Week in Matrix (TWIM)" "!xYvNcQPhnkrdUmYczI:matrix.org")))))
    ("Closed" "Rooms without buffers"
     (("#matrix-spec" "!NasysSDfxKxZBzJJoE:matrix.org")
      ("#commonlisp" "!IiGsrmKRHzpupHRaKS:libera.chat")
      ("Matrix HQ" "!OGEhHVWSdvArJzumhm:matrix.org")
      ("#lisp" "!czLxhhEegTEGNKUBgo:libera.chat")
      ("Emacs" "!gLamGIXTWBaDFfhEeO:matrix.org")
      ("#matrix-dev:matrix.org" "!jxlRxnrZCsjpjDubDX:matrix.org")))))))

3.2 Threading macros

If you happen to like macros, taxy works well with threading (i.e. thread-last or ->>):

(thread-last ement-roomy
  taxy-emptied
  (taxy-fill (ement-session-rooms ement-session))
  (taxy-mapcar (lambda (room)
		 (list (ement-room--room-display-name room)
		       (ement-room-id room))))
  taxy-plain)

3.3 Modifying filled taxys

Sometimes it's necessary to modify a taxy after filling it with objects, e.g. to sort the items and/or the sub-taxys. For this, use the function taxy-mapc-taxys (a.k.a. taxy-mapc*). For example, in the sample application musicy.el, the taxys and their items are sorted after filling, like so:

(defun musicy-files (files)
  (thread-last musicy-taxy
    taxy-emptied
    (taxy-fill files)
    ;; Sort sub-taxys by their name.
    (taxy-sort* #'string< #'taxy-name)
    ;; Sort sub-taxys' items by name.
    (taxy-sort #'string< #'identity)
    taxy-magit-section-pp))

3.4 Dynamic taxys

You may not always know in advance what taxonomy a set of objects fits into, so taxy lets you add taxys dynamically by using the :take function to add a taxy when an object is "taken into" a parent taxy's items. For example, you could dynamically classify buffers by their major mode like so:

(defun buffery-major-mode (buffer)
  (buffer-local-value 'major-mode buffer))

(defvar buffery
  (make-taxy
   :name "Buffers"
   :taxys (list
	   (make-taxy
	    :name "Modes"
	    :take (apply-partially #'taxy-take-keyed (list #'buffery-major-mode))))))

;; Note the use of `taxy-emptied' to avoid mutating the original taxy definition.
(taxy-plain
 (taxy-fill (buffer-list)
	    (taxy-emptied buffery)))

The taxy's :take function is set to the taxy-take-keyed function, partially applied with the buffery-major-mode function as its list of key-fns (taxy-fill supplies the buffer and the taxy as arguments), and it produces this taxonomy of buffers:

("Buffers"
 (("Modes"
   ((magit-process-mode
     (#<buffer magit-process: taxy.el> #<buffer magit-process: > #<buffer magit-process: notes>))
    (messages-buffer-mode
     (#<buffer *Messages*>))
    (special-mode
     (#<buffer *Warnings*> #<buffer *elfeed-log*>))
    (dired-mode
     (#<buffer ement.el<emacs>>))
    (Custom-mode
     (#<buffer *Customize Apropos*>))
    (fundamental-mode
     (#<buffer  *helm candidates:Bookmarks*> #<buffer *Backtrace*>))
    (magit-diff-mode
     (#<buffer magit-diff: taxy.el> #<buffer magit-diff: notes> #<buffer magit-diff: ement.el>))
    (compilation-mode
     (#<buffer *compilation*> #<buffer *Compile-Log*>))
    (Info-mode
     (#<buffer  *helm info temp buffer*> #<buffer *info*>))
    (help-mode
     (#<buffer *Help*>))
    (emacs-lisp-mode
     (#<buffer ement.el<ement.el>> #<buffer ement-room-list.el> #<buffer *scratch*>
	       #<buffer ement-room.el> #<buffer init.el> #<buffer bufler.el>
	       #<buffer dash.el> #<buffer *Pp Eval Output*> #<buffer taxy.el> #<buffer scratch.el>))))))
3.4.1 Multi-level dynamic taxys

Of course, the point of taxonomies is that they aren't restricted to a single level of depth, so you may also use the function taxy-take-keyed to dynamically make multi-level taxys.

Expanding on the previous example, we use cl-labels to define functions which are used in the taxy's definition, which are used in the :take function, which calls taxy-take-keyed (rather than using apply-partially like in the previous example, we use a lambda function, which performs better than partially applied functions). Then when the taxy is filled, a multi-level hierarchy is created dynamically, organizing buffers first by their directory, and then by mode in each directory.

(defvar buffery
  (cl-labels ((buffer-mode (buffer) (buffer-local-value 'major-mode buffer))
	      (buffer-directory (buffer) (buffer-local-value 'default-directory buffer)))
    (make-taxy
     :name "Buffers"
     :taxys (list
	     (make-taxy
	      :name "Directories"
	      :take (lambda (item taxy)
		      (taxy-take-keyed (list #'buffer-directory #'buffer-mode) item taxy)))))))

(taxy-plain
 (taxy-fill (buffer-list)
	    (taxy-emptied buffery)))

That produces a list like:

("Buffers"
 (("Directories"
   (("~/src/emacs/ement.el/"
     ((dired-mode
       (#<buffer ement.el<emacs>))
      (emacs-lisp-mode
       (#<buffer ement.el<ement.el> #<buffer ement-room-list.el> #<buffer ement-room.el>))
      (magit-diff-mode
       (#<buffer magit-diff: ement.el>))))
    ("~/src/emacs/taxy.el/"
     ((dired-mode
       (#<buffer taxy.el<emacs>))
      (Info-mode
       (#<buffer *info*>))
      (magit-status-mode
       (#<buffer magit: taxy.el>))
      (emacs-lisp-mode
       (#<buffer taxy-magit-section.el> #<buffer taxy.el<taxy.el> #<buffer scratch.el>))))))))
3.4.2 "Chains" of independent, multi-level dynamic taxys

Naming things is hard.

Going a step further, each element in the taxy-take-keyed function's KEY-FNS argument may be a list of functions (or a list of lists of functions, etc.), which creates a "chain" of "independent" dynamic taxys. Each such chain may be said to "short-circuit" the filling process in that, when an object is "taken" by the first key function in a chain, the object is not "offered" to other functions outside that chain. This allows each dynamic sub-taxy to have its own set of sub-taxys, rather than sharing the same "global" set. In effect, this creates multiple, unique taxonomies that share a single root taxy.

Building on the sporty example, let's define a taxy in which outdoor sports are classified only by whether they involve a disc, but indoor sports are additionally classified by whatever equipment they may use:

(defvar sporty-dynamic
  (cl-macrolet ((in (needle haystack)
		    `(lambda (item)
		       (when (member ,needle (funcall ,haystack item))
			 ,needle))))
    (cl-labels ((outdoor-p
		 (sport) (when (eq 'outdoor (sport-venue sport))
			   "Outdoor"))
		(indoor-p
		 (sport) (when (eq 'indoor (sport-venue sport))
			   "Indoor"))
		(disc-p
		 (sport) (if (funcall (in 'disc 'sport-uses) sport)
			     'disc
			   'non-disc)))
      (make-taxy
       :name "Sporty (dynamic)"
       :take (lambda (item taxy)
	       (taxy-take-keyed
		 (list (list #'outdoor-p #'disc-p)
		       (list #'indoor-p
			     (in 'ball 'sport-uses)
			     (in 'disc 'sport-uses)
			     (in 'glove 'sport-uses)
			     (in 'racket 'sport-uses)))
		 item taxy))))))

Now let's fill the taxy with the sports and format it:

(thread-last sporty-dynamic
  taxy-emptied
  (taxy-fill sports)
  (taxy-mapcar #'sport-name)
  taxy-plain)
("Sporty (dynamic)"
 (("Indoor"
   ((ball
     ("Volleyball" "Basketball")
     ((glove
       ("Handball"))
      (racket
       ("Racquetball"))))))
  ("Outdoor"
   ((disc
     ("Ultimate" "Disc golf"))
    (non-disc
     ("Soccer" "Tennis" "Football" "Baseball"))))))
3.4.3 Defining a classification domain-specific language

When writing a larger Taxy-based application, it may be necessary to define a number of key functions that would be unwieldy to manage in a cl-labels form. For this case, Taxy provides the macro taxy-define-key-definer to easily define Taxy key functions in an application library. Those functions are then passed to the function taxy-make-take-function at runtime, along with a list of keys being used to classify items. Using these allows key functions to be defined in top-level forms, and it allows an application to be extended by users by defining additional key functions in their configurations.

Extending the previous sporty example, let's redefine its key functions using taxy-define-key-definer:

(taxy-define-key-definer sporty-define-key
  sporty-keys "sporty"
  "Define a `sporty' key function.")

(sporty-define-key disc-based ()
  (if (member 'disc (sport-uses item))
      "Disc-based"
    "Non-disc-based"))

(sporty-define-key uses (&optional thing)
  (pcase thing
    (`nil (sport-uses item))
    (_ (when (cl-typecase (sport-uses item)
	       (symbol (equal thing (sport-uses item)))
	       (list (member thing (sport-uses item))))
	 thing))))

(sporty-define-key venue (&optional place)
  (pcase place
    (`nil (sport-venue item))
    (_ (when (equal place (sport-venue item))
	 (sport-venue item)))))

Now we'll define the default keys to use when classifying items. This list is equivalent to the one passed to taxy-take-keyed in the previous, "Chains" example.

(defvar sporty-default-keys
  '(
    ((venue 'outdoor)
     disc-based)

    ((venue 'indoor)
     (uses 'ball)
     (uses 'disc)
     (uses 'glove)
     (uses 'racket))))

Finally, rather than using a pre-made taxy struct, we make one at runtime, making the :take function with taxy-make-take-function.

(let ((taxy (make-taxy
	     :name "Sporty (DSL)"
	     :take (taxy-make-take-function sporty-default-keys
					    sporty-keys))))
  (thread-last taxy
    (taxy-fill sports)
    (taxy-mapcar #'sport-name)
    taxy-plain))

Which gives us:

("Sporty (DSL)"
 ((indoor
   ((ball
     ("Volleyball" "Basketball")
     ((glove
       ("Handball"))
      (racket
       ("Racquetball"))))))
  (outdoor
   (("Disc-based"
     ("Ultimate" "Disc golf"))
    ("Non-disc-based"
     ("Soccer" "Tennis" "Football" "Baseball"))))))

As you can see, the result is the same as that in the previous example, but we've defined a kind of DSL for grouping sports in a modular, extendable way.

This also allows the grouping keys to be easily changed at runtime, producing a different result. For example, we could group sports by, first, whether they use a ball, and then by venue. Let's do this in a function so that users can pass their own list of keys:

(cl-defun sporty-classify (sports &key (keys sporty-default-keys))
  (declare (indent defun))
  (let* ((taxy (make-taxy
		:name "Sporty (DSL)"
		:take (taxy-make-take-function keys
					       sporty-keys))))
    (thread-last taxy
      (taxy-fill sports)
      (taxy-mapcar #'sport-name)
      taxy-plain)))

(sporty-classify sports
  :keys '((uses 'ball) venue))

And this produces:

("Sporty (DSL)"
 ((outdoor
   ("Ultimate" "Disc golf"))
  (ball
   ((indoor
     ("Volleyball" "Handball" "Racquetball" "Basketball"))
    (outdoor
     ("Soccer" "Tennis" "Football" "Baseball"))))))

3.5 Magit section

Showing a taxy with magit-section is easy using the library taxy-magit-section, which is packaged separately:

(require 'taxy-magit-section)

;; Using the `numbery' taxy defined in earlier examples:
(thread-last numbery
  taxy-emptied ;; Get an empty copy of the taxy, since it's defined in a variable.
  (taxy-fill (reverse (cl-loop for i below 30 collect i)))
  taxy-magit-section-pp)

That shows a buffer like this:

3.6 Reference

In Emacs 28+, see also M-x shortdoc-display-group RET taxy RET.

3.6.1 Functions
taxy-flatten (taxy)
Return a list of items in taxy and its sub-taxys.
taxy-emptied (taxy)
Return a copy of taxy without items. Omits =taxy=’s items and those of its descendant taxys. Useful when reusing taxy definitions.
taxy-fill (items taxy)
Fill taxy with items according to its definition.
taxy-make-take-function (keys aliases)
Return a taxy "take" function for keys. Each of keys should be a function alias defined in aliases, or a list of such key-fns (recursively, ad infinitum, approximately). aliases should be an alist mapping aliases to functions (such as defined with a definer defined by taxy-define-key-definer).
taxy-mapc-taxys (fn taxy)

Alias: taxy-mapc*

Return taxy having applied fn to it and its descendants. Does not copy taxy. Destructively modifies taxy, if fn does.

taxy-mapcar-items (fn taxy)

Alias: taxy-mapcar

Return copy of taxy, having replaced its items with the value of fn on each. Replaces every item in taxy and its descendants. Useful to replace items with a more useful form after classification.

taxy-plain (taxy)
Return a list of the human-readable parts of taxy.
taxy-size (taxy)
Return the number of items taxy holds. Includes items in taxy ’s sub-taxys.
taxy-sort-items (pred key taxy)

Alias: taxy-sort

Sort taxy ’s items by pred and key. Sorts items in taxy and its sub-taxys. key is passed to cl-sort, which see.

taxy-sort-taxys (pred key taxy)

Alias: taxy-sort*

Sort taxy ’s sub-taxys by pred and key. key is passed to cl-sort, which see.

3.6.2 Macros
taxy-define-key-definer (name variable prefix docstring)
Define a macro name that defines a key-function-defining macro. The defined macro, having string docstring, associates the defined key functions with their aliases in an alist stored in symbol variable. The defined key functions are named having string prefix, which will have a hyphen appended to it. The key functions take one or more arguments, the first of which is the item being tested, bound within the function to item.

4 Changelog

4.1 0.9-pre

4.1.1 Changes

4.2 0.8

4.2.1 Additions
  • Short documentation group for Emacs 28+.
4.2.2 Fixes
  • Require map for pcase pattern.

4.3 0.7

4.3.1 Additions
  • Function taxy-flatten returns a list of the items in a taxy and its sub-taxys.
  • Function/macro reference documentation.
  • Example application bookmarky lists Emacs bookmarks grouped with Taxy.

4.4 0.6

4.4.1 Additions
  • Sorting functions:
    • taxy-sort-items (alias: taxy-sort) sorts the items in a taxy and its sub-taxys.
    • taxy-sort-taxys (alias: taxy-sort*) sorts a taxy's sub-taxys.
  • Defining classification domain-specific languages:
    • Macro taxy-define-key-definer defines a key-function-defining macro.
    • Function taxy-make-take-function makes a :take function using a list of key functions and a set of classification keys.
  • Table-like, column-based formatting system for taxy-magit-section:
    • Function taxy-magit-section-format-items, which formats items by columns.
    • Variable taxy-magit-section-insert-indent-items, which controls whether taxy-magit-section-insert applies indentation to each item. (Used to disable that behavior when items are pre-indented strings, e.g. as formatted by taxy-magit-section-format-items.)
  • Example application deffy, which shows an overview of top-level definitions and forms in an Elisp project or file. (Likely to be published as a separate package later.)

4.5 0.5

4.5.1 Additions
  • Function taxy-magit-section-insert takes new arguments:
    • :initial-depth sets the level at which the first level of hierarchy is considered to be at, for purposes of indentation. Setting it to a negative number prevents indentation of so many levels (i.e. setting it to -1 causes the first two levels to be unindented, since the first level will be considered to be at depth -1, and the second at depth 0).
    • :blank-between-depth sets the level up to which blank lines are inserted between sections (i.e. setting it to 1 causes blank lines to be inserted between sections up to depth 1, but not between sections deeper than that).
  • Struct taxy-magit-section has a new heading-face slot, a function which takes a depth level argument and returns the face with which to propertize that section's heading.
  • New example taxy-package-report.
4.5.2 Fixes
  • Example diredy referred to an old function name.

4.6 0.4

  • Incremented version to cause a new ELPA release (since removing a file that wasn't intended to be distributed on ELPA).

4.7 0.3

4.7.1 Changes
  • Within the taxy struct and related functions, the term objects is renamed to items, which is shorter and has the same meaning. This makes code a bit more concise (e.g. (taxy-objects taxy) becomes (taxy-items taxy)).
4.7.2 Fixes
  • Function taxy-fill always calls a taxy's :take function if defined. (Fixing "chains" of dynamic taxys.)
  • Function taxy-magit-section-insert applies text properties from the inserted string to the indentation string (so commands that rely on text properties at the beginning of a line will work).

4.8 0.2

4.8.1 Changes
  • Function taxy-take-keyed* is renamed to taxy-take-keyed, replacing the old function: it's more powerful, and there's little reason to maintain two versions.
4.8.2 Additions
  • Struct taxy now has a :make slot, a function called to make new sub-taxys by take-take-keyed (defaulting to make-taxy). This is useful when defining structs specialized on taxy.
  • Struct taxy-magit-section now has an :indent slot, a number of characters by which to indent each level of sub-taxy, applied automatically by function taxy-magit-section-insert.
  • Each element of the new taxy-take-keyed's KEY-FNS argument may now be a function or a list of functions (or a list of a list of functions, etc.). Lists of functions create "chains" of independent, dynamic taxys descending from a single root taxy. See .
4.8.3 Fixes
  • taxy-magit-section's insert-object function.
  • taxy-fill now applies objects to the root taxy if no sub-taxys take them.

4.9 0.1

First tagged version.

5 Development

Bug reports, feature requests, suggestions — oh my!

5.1 Copyright assignment

This package is part of GNU Emacs, being distributed in GNU ELPA. Contributions to this project must follow GNU guidelines, which means that, as with other parts of Emacs, patches of more than a few lines must be accompanied by having assigned copyright for the contribution to the FSF. Contributors who wish to do so may contact emacs-devel@gnu.org to request the assignment form.

6 Credits

  • Thanks to Stefan Monnier for his feedback, and for maintaining GNU ELPA.

7 License

GPLv3

Old versions

taxy-0.9pre0.20211005.64506.tar.lz2021-Oct-05 373 KiB
taxy-0.9pre0.20210924.60907.tar.lz2021-Sep-24 377 KiB
taxy-0.9pre0.20210923.30828.tar.lz2021-Sep-23 377 KiB
taxy-0.8pre0.20210920.42914.tar.lz2021-Sep-20 376 KiB
taxy-0.8pre0.20210918.212941.tar.lz2021-Sep-19 376 KiB
taxy-0.8pre0.20210917.210640.tar.lz2021-Sep-18 376 KiB
taxy-0.7pre0.20210917.205518.tar.lz2021-Sep-17 376 KiB
taxy-0.7pre0.20210916.172920.tar.lz2021-Sep-17 361 KiB
taxy-0.7pre0.20210916.925.tar.lz2021-Sep-16 361 KiB
taxy-0.7pre0.20210915.171122.tar.lz2021-Sep-15 361 KiB
taxy-0.6pre0.20210909.110702.tar.lz2021-Sep-09 217 KiB
taxy-0.6pre0.20210908.230249.tar.lz2021-Sep-09 216 KiB
taxy-0.6pre0.20210908.102316.tar.lz2021-Sep-08 216 KiB
taxy-0.6pre0.20210907.52104.tar.lz2021-Sep-07 216 KiB
taxy-0.6pre0.20210906.153314.tar.lz2021-Sep-06 216 KiB
taxy-0.5pre0.20210906.83145.tar.lz2021-Sep-06 215 KiB
taxy-0.5pre0.20210831.33300.tar.lz2021-Aug-31 215 KiB
taxy-0.3pre0.20210829.85057.tar.lz2021-Aug-29 215 KiB